[Review]   Modelling Antibiotic Exposure in the Hollow Fibre Infection Model

Maitra, A.; Solanki, P.;Sadouki, Z.; McHugh, T.D.;Kloprogge, F. Improving the Drug Development Pipeline for
Mycobacteria: Modelling Antibiotic Exposure in the Hollow Fibre Infection Model. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 1515. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10121515

Mycobacterial infections are difficult to treat, requiring a combination of drugs and lengthy treatment times, thereby presenting a substantial burden to both the patient and health services worldwide. The limited treatment options available are under threat due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in the pathogen, hence necessitating the development of new treatment regimens. Drug development processes are lengthy, resource intensive, and high-risk, which have contributed to market failure as demonstrated by pharmaceutical companies limiting their antimicrobial drug discovery programmes. Pre-clinical protocols evaluating treatment regimens that can mimic in vivo PK/PD attributes can underpin the drug development process. The hollow fibre infection model (HFIM) allows for the pathogen to be exposed to a single or a combination of agents at concentrations achieved in vivo–in plasma or at infection sites. Samples taken from the HFIM, depending on the analyses performed, provide information on the rate of bacterial killing and the emergence of resistance. Thereby, the HFIM is an effective means to investigate the efficacy of a drug combination. Although applicable to a wide variety of infections, the complexity of anti-mycobacterial drug discovery makes the information available from the HFIM invaluable as explored in this review.